When similarly adapted species overlap geographically, closer inspection reveals subtle ecological differences in their habitat or dietary requirements. This tends to afford them a competitive advantage and discourages similarly adapted species from having an overlapping geographic range.
Conversely, lower organizational levels exhibit rapid rates. A natural population of plants has greatly varying flower height. Hence, ecologists classify ecosystems hierarchically by analyzing data collected from finer scale units, such as vegetation associations, climate, and soil types, and integrate this information to identify emergent patterns of uniform organization and processes that operate on local to regional, landscapeand chronological scales.
The population that lives in an isolated rock outcrop hides in crevasses where its flattened body offers a selective advantage. For example, individual tree leaves respond rapidly to momentary changes in light intensity, CO2 concentration, and the like. Both the relative and absolute age of species Nothing about the age of an species Only the absolute age of an species Only the relative age of two species Ecological niche Termite mounds with varied heights of chimneys regulate gas exchange, temperature and other environmental parameters that are needed to sustain the internal physiology of the entire colony.
Disruptive selection Directional selection Artificial selection Ecosystems, for example, contain abiotic resources and interacting life forms i. Can be any molecule found in a wide variety of organisms Must be rapidly changing do to extreme selective pressure Must be present in all species being examined and must have a constant rate of neutral substitution Must have a constant rate of neutral substitution and be present in only on of a group of species being examined Natural capital that supports populations is critical for maintaining ecosystem services   and species migration e.
To structure the study of ecology into a conceptually manageable framework, the biological world is organized into a nested hierarchyranging in scale from genesto cellsto tissuesto organsto organismsto speciesto populationsto communitiesto ecosystemsto biomesand up to the level of the biosphere.
The breeding of dogs by humans to have a particular coat color is an example Balanced polymorphism Inheritance of acquired traits Macroevolution Corals adapt to and modify their environment by forming calcium carbonate skeletons. The growth of the tree responds more slowly and integrates these short-term changes.
Biodiversity Biodiversity refers to the variety of life and its processes.
This provides growing conditions for future generations and forms a habitat for many other species. The realized niche is the set of environmental plus ecological conditions under which a species persists. The former focus on organisms distribution and abundance, while the later focus on materials and energy fluxes.
It includes the variety of living organisms, the genetic differences among them, the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, and the ecological and evolutionary processes that keep them functioning, yet ever changing and adapting.
Habitat Biodiversity of a coral reef. What type of selection has acted here? The term has several interpretations, and there are many ways to index, measure, characterize, and represent its complex organization.
The competitive exclusion principle states that two species cannot coexist indefinitely by living off the same limiting resource ; one will always out-compete the other.
Over many generations more and more plants have flowers of medium height, while there are very few with very short or very tall flowers.
Over many generations, these giraffes develop long necks to reach the branches. Evelyn Hutchinson made conceptual advances in   by introducing a widely adopted definition: Two ways in which sexual selection can take place are: Habitat shifts provide important evidence of competition in nature where one population changes relative to the habitats that most other individuals of the species occupy.ECO EVO Study Guide Major Themes: Darwin’s Postulate 1.
Heritable variation – (genotype) models of loci, usually 2 alleles, produce heritable phenotypes. Behavioural ecology is the study of an organism's behaviour in its environment and its ecological and evolutionary implications. Ethology is the study of observable movement or behaviour in animals. Ecology and evolution provide the explanatory context for biogeographical studies.
Ecology Study Guide List several biotic factors in an ecosystem. List several abiotic factors in an ecosystem. What serves as the ultimate energy for all life on earth? What is transpiration & what cycle is it a part of?
Introduction Studies on the evolution of the human Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) have shown evolutionary traits that are. Matching challenge worksheet Ecology unit study guide (Still need to add some) Evolution unite study guide (Need definitions). Advancements in the fields of evolution, heredity, and ecology have been significant in the past couple of centuries.
Here we will investigate the. View Test Prep - EvolutionandEcologyStudyGuide from BIOLOGY II at Townsend Harris High School. Evolution and Ecology Study Guide I. Evolution a.
Evolution: The change in an organism's DNA over time.Download