This is certainly a deep and interesting philosophical question. In the face of recent debates, it is hard to agree with Held that this is the model on which Kantian ethics is built.
Tronto states there are four ethical elements of care: As a requirement on justification, impartiality is not trivial because it imposes that differential treatment be justified on the basis of a relevant difference. At times Held suggests that they pertain to different domains, and that they should be allowed priority in their respective spheres of competence This lack of dialogue is unfortunate because it deprives the reader of the grounds for an adequate assessment of both care ethics and Kantian ethics.
From this perspective, being that we are all similar in being born and charged with living our lives, empathy in itself is only reasonable. While acknowledging the feminist roots of care ethics, Held defends it as an independent moral framework, whose broader agenda is distinguished from the feminist agenda and also from virtue-ethics.
The ethics of care respects rather than removes itself from the claims of particular others with whom we share actual relationships" Insofar it rejects the claim that ethical theory requires a complete rational decision procedure, the ethics of care finds more supporters than Held anticipates, as very few philosophers agree that ethical theory is designed to offer a complete decision procedure, and there is ample discussion about the consequences of completeness.
In Kantian and Utilitarian ethics their role is typically confined to motivation, but it is nonetheless a rather important role. For virtue-ethics epistemology, emotions are modes of discernment.
Held treats care as both a practice and a valueand this provisional definition works well as Held tries to draw attention to personal caring relations. When Held spells out the third defining feature of care ethics, she appears to attack several overlapping claims.
Whether Kantian ethics is well-equipped to address this concern crucially depends on how we frame the requirement of universality and impartiality. But even when abstraction is a warrant to impartiality, it does not demand that we dismiss personal relations, that we disregard particular attachments, or that we fail to attend to the needs of our particular others, as Held argues.
As an independent theoretical approach, the ethics of care is not yet justified. The question, then, is which theory fares better in addressing such issues as our interdependence or relatedness. A concern for impartiality is not equivalent to the demand for impersonality.
Looking at the ethics of care, rather than an approach grounded in universal standard, or the pursuit of higher reasoning, human relationships are put at the forefront.
This does not mean that the one-caring does exactly what the cared-for desires in all situations. She claims that such "dominant moral theories as utilitarianism and Kantian ethics are built on the liberal model of social relations between strangers" Kantian ethics in that it seeks to incorporate traditionally feminized virtues and values which, proponents of care ethics contend, are absent in such traditional models of ethics.
Conversely, with this sense of absolute moral code, Kant endorses scenarios such as a person, with the knowledge that to lie is wrong, giving away the location of a potential victim to a murderer.
Christine Korsgaard has extensively argued for the constitutive role of personal relations, and investigated the dimension of reciprocity.
In contrast to these moral theories, Held argues that the ethics of care centers on personal relations and communal ties. One does not have either the capacity or the duty to care for everyone. She draws attention to caring labor, and shows that it escapes in many ways the traditional categories that are appropriate for the market.
Responsibility is ambiguous, whereas obligation refers to situations where action or reaction is due, such as the case of a legal contract. Not opposed to a legitimate place for emotion in ethical discourse, Aristotle outlined the importance of feeling at the proper times and for good reasons.
Although it was not necessary that feminine moral theory be aligned with the ethics of care, it so happens that those writing in the feminine tradition have come to associate care and responsibility to others with a female-gendered approach to ethics and individual rights and justice with a male-gendered approach to ethics.
Competence To provide care also means competency. Finally, she suggests that the ethics of care has a larger significance for global issues insofar as it offers an alternative characterization of international civility. We all have the capacity to do right as well as wrong, but it is the ability to overlook discrimination and value another person and their unique potential and personality that is most moral.
Contrary to some other supporters of care ethics, Held does not intend to replace justice with care. Utilitarianism defends dignity by advocating our right and desire for a pleasurable existence and by focusing on what will be most beneficial to the most people.
More importantly, neither directly follows from the alleged abstractness of moral reasoning, and the demands of either are generally specified according to specific contexts. However, what is distinctive in all such relations is that the one-caring acts in response to a perceived need on the part of the cared-for.
American philosopher Nel Noddings provided one of the first comprehensive theories of care and argued that caring is the foundation of morality. See Article History Alternative Title:Irrespective of whether the ethics of care is grounded in gender, as with Gilligan and Noddings, or inscribed on Heidegger's ontology, as with Benner, Kant remains the philosophical adversary, honouring reason rather than emotion, universality rather than context, and individual autonomy rather than interdependence.
The ethics of care (alternatively care ethics or EoC) is a normative ethical theory that holds that moral action centers on interpersonal relationships and care or benevolence as a virtue. EoC is one of a cluster of normative ethical theories that were developed by feminists in the second half of the twentieth century.
. Sep 09, · Ethics of care defend the concept of human dignity not through duty to principle, but through expressly the care and consideration of all people, simply because they are fellow humans, whom we respect. In The Ethics of Care, Virginia Held offers a detailed account of the ethics of care, its features and potential as a novel normative theory.
The first part of the book is devoted to the definition of care ethics as a distinct theoretical approach that represents an alternative to moral theories such as Kantian ethics and utilitarianism.
Kantian ethics, with an emphasis on the concepts of patient dignity, autonomy, and the second formulation of the Categorical Imperative, could be a helpful addition for medical ethics education.
The term ethics of care refers to ideas concerning both the nature of morality and normative ethical theory. The ethics of care perspective stands in stark contrast to ethical theories that rely on principles to highlight moral actions—such as Kantian deontology, utilitarianism, and justice theory—and is not meant to be absolute and incontrovertible.Download